Ch. 17 Objectives due Tues 3/6
Feb Vacation Work: Animal Biodiversity Objectives for : Porifera, Cnidaria, and Flatworms due Mon2/27
Ch. 16 Objectives due Fri 2/17
Starting Fri 2/3 students should complete 3-5 objectives each night.
Chapter 16: The
Molecular Basis of Life
170. Draw a double stranded
DNA molecule with 3 nucleotides on each side. Use different colors for the
phosphates, sugars, and bases. Include
the hydrogen bonds and label each end of each strand 5’ or 3.’
171. Look back to Ch. 5, page
82. Name the bonds hold the nucleotides together. Name the kind of bond (see
bonds from Biochem) On your drawing above, label these linkages.
172. Draw a replication fork
(label the ends with 5’ and 3’). This
is the first step to DNA replication. Discuss the enzymes that enable the
formation of the fork/ separation of the two strands.
173. DNA polymerase cannot
initiate synthesis of a DNA strand, unless there is a free 3’-OH
available. Explain how the enzyme
primase get the process started. Include a drawing in your explanation.
174. Explain the difference
between replicating the leading strand versus the lagging strand. Use a
175. You know that
nucleotides are the building blocks of DNA. DNA polymerase actually uses nucleotide
triphosphates as a substrate when building a strand. Describe the structure
of a nucleotide triphosphate. Explain how this molecule able to provide energy
for the replication process. (page 296-297)
176. DNA can be repaired if
there is a mistake. Discuss the special feature of DNA polymerase that aids in repair. Figure 16.7 shows a problem caused by u/v
light, what is it called and how is it repaired?
177. The ends of chromosomes
are called telomeres. When the
last primer comes off the telomere, there is no free 3’-OH for DNA
polymerase so the end cannot be made. In
most cells, the telomeres get shorter and shorter with each round of
replication. Why is this okay? Germ cells (cells that make gametes) have an
enzyme called telomerase. How does this enzyme maintain telomere length
in these cells so offspring inherit long telomeres?
178. Biomedical Question: Other than
germ cells where else is telomerase found?
Explain why destroying telomerase in these cells may cure some cases of
Starting Mon 1/3 Students should complete 3-5 objectives each night.
Chapter 13: Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles
146. Compare and contrast the following terms:
a. somatic cell; gamete
b. diploid; haploid
c. autosome;sex chromosome
d. gamete; spore (page 237)
e. asexual reproduction; sexual reproduction
f. gene; genome
147. Draw and label a chromosome following DNA replication and all of its parts.
148. Describe each stage of meiosis.
149. Draw and label a pair of chromosomes crossing-over.
150. Discuss the processes that occur in meiosis that result in genetic variation in the resulting daughter cells (gametes), which contributes to the genetic variation in populations. Give a brief explanation as to how they provide the daughter cells with genetic variation.
151. Compare and contrast prophase I, II and prophase of mitosis.
152. Compare and contrast anaphase I, II, and anaphase of mitosis.
153. Compare and contrast the daughter cells of mitosis and meiosis.
154. Discuss the importance of genetic variation to populations.
155. Discuss the process of fertilization in the formation of a zygote. Discuss the importance of random fertilization.
Ch. 14: Mendel and the Gene Idea
156. Name three characters and a variety of traits for each.
157. Define allele.
158. Compare and contrast the following terms:
a. dominant allele; recessive allele
b. homozygous; heterozygous
c. phenotype; genotype
d. incomplete dominance; complete dominance; codominance
e. amniocentesis; chorionic villus sampling
159. Describe an example of an experiment of Mendel that proved that genetic traits do not blend.
160. State and explain Mendel’s laws.
161. Define testcross. Provide an example of a scenario in which a test cross would help determine the genotype of an organism.
Ex. Considering number of eyes (T, t) in aliens. Three eyes is dominant, 4 eyes is recessive. You found an alien with three eyes, but don’t know his genotype. What would you do to determine the genotype? Show the two possible results with Punnett Squares and explain how you would know the genotype of the alien when you are done.
162. State the rule of multiplication and the rule of addition for the use of solving genetics probability problems. Use the rules to solve problems given in class. **Practice using these rules over and over again**
163. Practice problem: Give the genotypes, possible gametes, and offspring of the following alien breeding: (green skin is dominant to yellow and three eyes is dominant to four) A heterozygous green skinned, four eyed alien is bred to a yellow, heterozygous three eyed alien.
164. Practice Problem: Cystic fibrosis is a recessive disorder. If a man and a woman are both carriers of the CF allele (they both have one copy of the disease allele—they aren’t affected by the disease) use the rule of multiplication to determine the probability that there child will have CF. How would you answer differently if the genotype of the man is uknown, but you know his mother was a carrier?
165. Define epistasis and polygenic inheritance and provide examples of each.
166. Describe a pedigree and what it is used for.
167. Practice problem: CF is a recessively inherited disease. Draw a pedigree, use Punnett Squares, and the rule of multiplication to work on the following problem :
(1) A person’s grandmother had CF, the great-great grandfather did not, but was a carrier. (2) These grandparents had four children (2 girls 2 boys); use aPunnet Squareto predict their genotypes and give them these genotypes on the pedigree. (3) The person’s mother is one of these children, the persons father was a first cousin of the persons mother and happened to be a carrier. (4) What is the probability that the person has CF? What is the probability that the person is a carrier? (5) If the person does not have CF and does not know if she is a carrier, what is the probability that her child will have CF if her husband is a known carrier.
Chapter 15: The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance
168. Explain what a sex-linked gene is. State what you would look for in an inheritance pattern to identify a sex-linked trait.
169. Define linked genes. (page 272) Explain how these genes can be inherited independently of one another (page 274)
-Starting Mon 11/28 3-5 objectives per night for Cellular Energetics:
Unit: Cellular Energetics
Structure and Hydrolysis of ATP p 94-95
106. Review Objective: Distinguish between exergonic and endergonic reactions.
107. Discuss the structure of ATP and explain how its hydrolysis is coupled with other reactions in the cell.
108. Draw the structure of ATP. Label all parts and indicate which is the high energy bond.
Chapter 9 : Cellular Respiration
Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy p155-159
109. Cells recycle ATP. When converted to ADP it must be converted back to ATP. Name the two processes that can perform this recycling.
110. Distinguish between oxidation and reduction. * note: a way to remember reduction: e- have a neg. charge, therefore when an e- is added to a molecule its charge is reduced
111. Describe a redox reaction. Note that these reactions drive ATP synthesis in cellular respiration.
112. State the chemical equation for cellular respiration. *Know this and the equation for photosynthesis FOREVER! Name which molecule is oxidized and which is reduced.
113. Cellular respiration requires many steps. Hydrogens from glucose are transferred to two coenzymes called_____________ and_______________. This molecule is an electron acceptor or an electron carrier.
114. In the final steps of cellular respiration, the electrons from the electron carrier reduce what molecule? Also known as the terminal or final electron acceptor.
115. List the names of the three phases of cellular respiration.
116. Create a table that includes columns: glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, and electron transport chain/ oxidative phosphorylation rows: site, reactants, by-products,method of ATP production, products used in later steps highlight: the reactants and products that are found in the chemical equation.
117. Summarize how negative and positive feedback are used to regulate cellular respiration.
118. Explain under what conditions fermentation would take place.
119. Name the process occurs in both cellular respiration and fermentation. Compare the relative amounts of ATP produced in this process compared to all of CR.
120. During glycolysis, glucose is converted to two molecules of ______________
121. During glycolysis NAD+ is reduced to NADH,; explain how is NAD+ regenerated so glycolysis can continue in alcohol fermentation and lactic acid fermentation.
122. Describe facultative anaerobes
123. In 2-3 sentences explain the evolutionary significance of glycolysis.
Chapter 10: Photosynthesis
Introduction to Photosynthesis p176-178
124. Name two terms that refer to organisms that make their own organic materials from CO2.
125. Name two terms that refer to organisms that live on organic molecules made by other organisms.
126. Use figure 9.1 from chapter 9 to explain how most organisms are dependent on plants for food and oxygen by explaining the flow of energy and oxygen from plants to other organisms in ecosystems. Do not simply redraw figure 9.1.
127. State the chemical equation for photosynthesis. Name the reactants and the products.
128. Describe the function of chlorophyll and explain where it is located (specifically) in plants. (what tissue, what part of the chloroplast)
129. Describe how plant cells get light energy, oxygen, and water for photosynthesis.
130. Explain where the carbon comes from for the glucose produced by photosynthesis. The oxygen?
THE LIGHT REACTIONS
131. Name the type of light that drives photosynthesis.
132. Define pigments. List the three pigments in plant cells and discuss their specific roles.
133. Name the light harvesting unit in a plant that includes a complex of proteins and pigment molecules.
134. Name the part of a photosystem that sends an electron to a primary electron acceptor. Name the chlorophyll molecule that is located at this part of the photosystem.
135. Name the mechanism by which ATP is synthesized during the light reactions of photosynthesis. What familiar process is used to do this? (hint: it also happens in C.R)
136. Name the enzyme used to make NADPH. Why does this enzyme have this name?
137. Make 2 columns, label them cyclic e- flow and noncyclic e- flow; list the major differences between them
138. Explain the importance of cyclic e-flow.
139. There are three products of the light reactions. What are they and where do they go from here? There are two major reactants in the light reactions. What are they? Write the balanced chemical equation for photosynthesis. Which of these products and reactants show up in this equation?
The Calvin Cycle
140. Where specifically does the Calvin Cycle occur?
141. Leaves take in CO2 via _____________. The CO2 is then fixed by the enzyme ____________ joining them to the “carbon acceptor molecule”, ____________ .
142. How many ATPs and NADPHs are used in one cycle? Where do all of these molecules come from? More ATPs are needed than NADPHs explain how plant cells compensate for this.
143. SIX glyceraldehyde 3 phosphates (G3P) are made in the Calvin Cycle. Explain how they are used up.
144. The light reactions and the Calvin Cycle are closely linked. Products of the light reactions are used in the Calvin Cycle and products of the Calvin Cycle are then used in the light reactions!
Draw a simplified drawing of a chloroplast, showing how they are related. Highlight or use special colors to indicate important products, reactants and enzymes. Make sure its clear what products of the light reactions are used by Calvin, and vise versa. Use your notes and Fig. 10.20 to help you. This will be a great summary of photosynthesis for you.
3 Types of Plants: C3, C4, and CAM
145. Different types of plants have made adaptations depending on their living conditions to perform photosynthesis. Describe the basic differences between C3, C4, and CAM plants and how they perform photsynthesis. *Very likely on AP exam
-Remaining cell objectives DUE Wed 11/23
-Starting Oct. 19th Cell Biology Objectives: 3-5 per night
Cells Unit Objectives
Chapter 7: A Tour of the Cell
73. Make a three column chart and compare and contrast plant and animal and prokaryotic cells.
74. Draw, label, and describe all the components of the nucleus and nucleoid.
75. Draw a flow chart following the possible pathways of a protein starting at the nucleus. Include a brief statement describing what happens at each location.
76. Draw and label a mitochondria and a chloroplast. List the primary function of each of these organelles.
77. List the many roles of vacuoles.
78. Go to this link: http;//evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/_0_0/endosymbiosis_01
Read the entire study by hitting next at the bottom of each page. Use the website to write an essay answering the following (due 10/26)
- What is endosymbiosis
- What role did endosymbiosis play in the evolution of eukaryotes?
- How does endosymbiosis change our view of the branching pattern on the tree of life?
79. Compare and contrast lysosomes and peroxisomes.
80. Compare and contrast the structure and function of smooth ER and rough ER.
81. Name the protein building block of each of the fibers found in the cytoskeleton and list the roles of each of the fibers.
82. Name the organisms that have cell walls. Name the kingdoms that they represent (Its not just plant cells!)
83. Use the internet to find out how the antibiotics affect the cell walls of bacteria. (this may help you remember that bacteria have cell walls too)
84. Name the components of the extracellular matrix of animal cells and discuss the roles that each of them play.
85. The interaction between neighboring cells in tissues and organs is allowed by intercellular junctions. Describe the intercellular junctions of plants and animals.
Ch. 8 Membrane Structure and Function (Read entire chapter)
86. Draw a phospholipid bilayer. Lable all the parts in as much detail as you can. There should be several types of organic molecules.
87. Why is the current model of the cell membrane the “fluid mosaic model”?
88. Discuss what components of the cell membrane affects fluidity.
89. Explain why water molecules need a transport protein to move rapidly and in large quantities across a membrane. Name the protein water uses to cross the membrane.
90. Make a table of all the types of membrane transport you’ve learned about. Make sure to have column for energy requirement, protein requirements, direction of movement(regarding concentration gradient), important examples, and anything else that will help you keep them straight.
91. Describe how membranes are synthesized.
Ch. 11 Cell Communication (Will not cover in class, not on class test, possibly on AP exam)
92. External signals are converted into responses within the cell. Explain the three stages of cell signaling.
93. Discuss the G-protein linked receptors plasma membrane receptors. Explain the role of cAMP as a second messenger in a G-protein-signaling pathway.
94. Describe what a signal transduction pathway is.
95. Explain what is meant by protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. Explain how these mechanisms can control cellular activities.
96. Discuss a few examples of cytoplasmic or nuclear responses to cell signaling. Explain how these signals may be amplified and why cell signaling is so specific.
Ch. 12: The Cell Cycle
97. Draw a figure representing the whole cell cycle. In this figure, list the major events that happen during each phase. For the mitosis/cytokinesis section, you can just list nuclear and cell division for events.
98. Explain why all stages of interphase must occur before mitosis can occur.
99. Name the stages of mitosis and list what happens during them. Pay really close attention to what is happening to the chromosomes…this will be important later for when you need to compare phases of mitosis to meiosis.
100. Discuss the differences between cytokinesis in animal cells versus plant cells.
101. Define binary fission. List which organisms reproduce using this method.
102. Explain what a cell cycle checkpoint is.
103. Discuss how growth factors affect the cell cycle.
104. Discuss what happens to a cell when they escape cell cycle controls. Include the word transformation in your discussion.
105. Discuss the difference between a benign and a malignant tumor.
-Starting September 16th Biochemistry Objectives: 3-5 per night
Chapter 2: Chemical Context of Life
- Distinguish between ionic and covalent bonds. Explain polar versus nonpolar covalent bonds.
- What are hydrogen bonds? Why are they so important?
- Which occurs faster at equilibrium, the formation of products from reactants, or reactants from products?
Chapter 3: Water and Fitness of the Environment
- Water has four properties that allow it to make Earth suitable for life. Name these four properties and give a brief description of each.
- Describe two reasons why water’s high specific heat allows for life on Earth.
- What is a mole (mol)? What does molarity refer to?
- What are acids and bases and how do they interact with water? What is the pH of water?
- What is the importance of buffers in biological fluids? What is the normal pH of blood?
Chapter 4: Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life
- What makes carbon a versatile building block of living matter?
- Draw, describe, and KNOW, the functional groups of organic compounds from Table 4.1. It may help to include a brief note about each one to help you remember them. (We will not go over the functional groups in class)
Chapter 5: The Structure and Function of Macromolecules
- What are the four major groups of macromolecules?
- Distinguish between the different classes of carbohydrates (monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccarides).
- Describe the carbohydrates that are stored in plants and the type stored in animals.
58. List and describe the structure of the three most important family of lipids. Why are each of these important for life?
59. What is the building block of nucleic acids? Describe the three parts.
60. Describe the four levels of protein folding? DNA determines the primary structure of a protein, how would a DNA mutation affect a protein?
61. During the synthesis of each of the four macromolecules, a bond is made between the monomers that make them up, or between major regions as with lipids. Name and draw these bonds.
Chapter 6: An introduction to Metabolism
62. Distinguish between catabolic and anabolic pathways.
63. Explain the first and second laws of thermondynamics. How does the second law of thermodynamics help explain the diffusion of a substance across a membrane?
64.Cellular respiration uses glucose, which has a high level of free energy, and releases CO2 and water, which have low levels of free energy. Is respiration spontaneous or not? Is it exergonic or endergonic? What happens to the energy released from glucose?
65. Explain how ATP powers cellular work.
66. How do enzymes work? Use a graph of free energy vs. progress of the reaction to explain your answer.
67. Why do enzymes only work on very specific substrates?
68. Explain the environmental factors, temperature and pH, affect the activity of an enzyme.
69. Explain the difference between a competitive inhibitor and a noncompetitive inhibitor; you should use a labeled drawing in your answer.
70. A competitive inhibitor of the enzyme sucrase slows down the production of glucose and fructose in a test-tube reaction. How would you overcome the effect of the inhibitor?
71. How can an activator and an inhibitor have different effects on an allosterically regulated enzyme?
72. What is feedback inhibition aka negative feedback? Find an example (book or internet) of a process that is regulated by negative feedback.